Worship Music Is Emotionally Manipulative. Do You Trust the Leader Plucking the Strings? (2023)

“Bigger!” said the voice in my in-ear monitor.

I was on stage in a dark room, nearly blinded by spotlights. It was my first time leading worship at a big regional conference for college students, and one of the production managers in the sound booth prompted me to raise my hands higher, move more, clap more, jump, be more physically demonstrative.

I had always known conference worship sets were orchestrated, but this was the first time I could see the minutiae. At one point, I was told to imagine my arms attached to foam pool noodles, to keep them straight and raise them high. Each song was ranked by “energy level” from 1 to 5, and certain sessions could have songs only above a 3.

I remember wondering, Am I manipulating the people watching, singing, and listening? Am I using music to generate an emotional response in the crowd?

The short answer is yes. Worship music can move and manipulate emotions, even shape belief. Corporate worship is neurological and physiological. Martin Luther insisted that music’s ability to move and manipulate made it a singular, divine gift. “Next to the Word of God,” Luther wrote, “only music deserves being extolled as the mistress and governess of the feelings of the human heart. … Even the Holy Spirit honors music as a tool of his work.”

Songwriters and worship leaders use tempo and dynamic changes, modulation, and varied instrumentation to make contemporary worship music engaging, immersive, and, yes, emotionally moving.

As worshipers, we can feel it. Songs with lengthy interludes slowly build anticipation toward a familiar hook. Or the band drops out so voices sing out when the chorus hits. Plus the lyrics themselves can cue our behavior (“I’ll stand with arms high and heart abandoned”).

There are valid and interesting questions about the particularities that give contemporary worship music its resonance—borrowed conventions of secular love songs and pop ballads or associations with the aesthetics of high-energy arena rock concerts by artists like U2 and Coldplay, for example. But current concerns about the manipulative power of worship music seem to have less to do with musical style and taste than with the people and institutions involved in the making and performance of it.

So perhaps the question I should have been asking myself on stage is not whether the music was manipulative but whether those of us responsible for the worship set were trustworthy stewards and shepherds of the experience.

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Corporate worship invites us to open ourselves to spiritual and emotional guidance. That openness feels, and is, vulnerable. And as worship becomes a bigger production in churches and ministry events, a rising chorus has challenged whether our emotions are in safe hands.

“That’s the tricky thing about emotions. [In musical worship] something happens inside you that is both voluntary and involuntary,” said ethnomusicologist Monique Ingalls, who directs graduate and research programs in church music at Baylor University.

Worshipers have agency; they decide how much they open themselves to emotional direction. Even extreme examples of musical propaganda require receptivity on the part of the listener. Musical propaganda is most effective when the music is used to increase devotion—to build on our faith—not change or alter beliefs. But once there is trust and buy-in, a dangerous, exploitative emotional manipulation is possible.

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“Emotional manipulation in a worship service is like a shepherd leading people to certain pastures without knowing why,” wrote Zac Hicks, author of The Worship Pastor, on the subject of “manipulation vs. shepherding.”

“Manipulation, at its best is ‘purposeless shepherding,’ or ‘partial shepherding,’” Hicks wrote. “A sheep-person waking up from the fog of manipulation will often first exclaim, ‘Wait, why am I here?’”

Rather than a worship leader seeing the crowd’s emotional response—raised hands, closed eyes, or tears—as a sign of a successful set, Hicks argued that a thoughtful shepherd will use what he calls the “emotional contours of the gospel” (“the glory of God,” “the gravity of sin,” and “the greatness of grace”) to shape musical worship and avoid manipulation.

But when worshipers suspect that attention to the gospel’s contours has been superseded by other influences, trust begins to erode. Does it seem like the worship leader on stage is concerned more with cultivating a particular image than with serving in a pastoral role? Do heavy emotional moments seem to become overtures to fundraising? Worshipers fear manipulation when they have a reason to doubt the intentions of a leader or institution.

“It’s easy to mistake emotional manipulation for a movement of God, right?” journalist and author Kelsey McKinney said in the 2022 documentary Hillsong: A Megachurch Exposed. “Are you crying because the Lord is staging some kind of intervention in your life, or are you crying because the chord structure is built to make you cry?”

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The suspicion that a chord structure might be “built to make you cry” oversimplifies the relationship between music and emotion. Music does not simply act upon the listener; there is a dialectic between an individual and music in which each influences and responds to the other.

But the fear of being tricked into perceiving carefully crafted music as a spiritual encounter is understandable when it seems like powerful people at the helm of megachurches are using powerful music to cultivate loyalty and devotion—not only to God but also to their brand.

Scandals like the ones that have plagued Hillsong in recent years, as well as indications that contemporary worship music is increasingly shaped by financial interests, are feeding skepticism. A growing share of the worship music used in churches comes from a small but powerful group of songwriters and performers that most of us will never see in person.

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When it comes to emotional shepherding, Ingalls sees trust and authenticity as paramount—two things that are difficult to maintain in a celebrity-fan relationship.

“I think the fear of manipulation, the question ‘Can I trust this person?’ is absolutely wrapped up in the authenticity debate,” Ingalls said.

​​But concerns around emotional manipulation far predate Hillsong and the worship mega-artists of the past 20 years. A 1977 Christianity Today cover package titled “Should Music Manipulate Our Worship?” called out new expressions marked by “a strong beat and a high emotional pitch,” from uptempo “gospel rock” bands.

The musical styles have changed, but the direction offered remains relevant for today:

If the evangelical church is to respond maturely to the swiftly changing patterns of musical expression, we need trained, concerned ministers of music who can guide us past the pitfalls of both aestheticism (worship of beauty) and hedonism (worship of pleasure).

We need musicians who are first ministers. They must understand the spiritual, emotional, and aesthetic needs of ordinary people and help lead a church in its quest for the true Word and for a creative, authentic, and complete expression of its faith. This kind of a ministry is more concerned with training participants than with entertaining spectators.

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Imperfect medium, imperfect shepherds

C. S. Lewis, though not a musician, professed the belief that music could be “a preparation for or even a medium for meeting God,” with the caveat that it could easily become a distraction or an idol.

Musicologist John MacInnis has observed that Lewis’s exposure to the music of Beethoven and Richard Wagner was a spiritual gateway. Lewis considered transcendent musical moments in his life as signposts and would look back after his conversion to Christianity and see them as encounters that moved his heart and mind toward God.

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But Lewis recognized the imperfection of music as a mode of worship or devotional meditation. “The emotional effect of music may be not only a distraction (to some people at some times) but a delusion: i.e. feeling certain emotions in church they mistake them for religious emotions when they may be wholly natural.”

Lewis did not understand his response to Wagner’s Ring cycle as worship, but he felt it brought him to some form of transcendence, to an overwhelming sublime encounter.

Listeners overwhelmed by the visual and sonic spectacle of a Taylor Swift concert might feel euphoria that does indeed surpass the usual scope of their emotions. Music and its contexts can bring us to the height of our emotional capacities. We can be overwhelmed by its beauty or power, by the visual media it accompanies, by a memory it alone can activate with precision and potency.

Like Lewis, perhaps we all can benefit from allowing ourselves to be overwhelmed by music outside the sanctuary every now and then. It may be that understanding our capacity to be moved by music will help us navigate our emotional openness in worship.

The exact workings of music on the emotions are inscrutable, even with new neurological research that further explores music’s effects on the brain. Beneath our fear of being emotionally manipulated, for most of us, lies a fear that we are being coerced into doing or believing. We fear that our emotions are responding only to the music and not to the Holy Spirit, that what we perceive as a spiritual encounter is counterfeit, manufactured by skillful musicians, a production team, and a well-written musical hook.

Transparency may be one antidote. It may help for musicians and worship leaders to simply be more open about the ways they program music or what the purpose of a particular musical selection might be. A leader might preface a meditative song with intimate lyrics by encouraging the congregation to consider a passage of Scripture. Just acknowledging the emotional weight of the moment indicates self-awareness and care on the part of the leader.

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Ingalls suggests evaluating emotional musical worship experiences in a particular church or ministry by looking at the fruit of that worship outside the sanctuary. “When we're evaluating emotions in worship, we can ask, ‘What are the worshipers that have these intense emotional experiences going out and doing?’”

If we accept that our moving, sometimes tearful, moments in a singing congregation are almost always brought about by some cooperation between God in us and the music around us, we can keep an eye on the work of our shepherds by looking around at the pastures where we find ourselves on the other side.

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“What is being done on the ground?” Ingalls suggests asking.“To bring God’s shalom into the world? To heal broken relationships between God, between people, between people and the earth?”

Kelsey Kramer McGinnis is CT’s worship music correspondent. She is a musicologist, educator, and writer who researches music in Christian communities.


What does the Bible say about the role of music in worship? ›

Music has a way of piercing into the deep parts of our soul, that assists in our expression and response to God and to the church. Singing helps unites us to the church. The gospel alone unites believers to one another. However, music is a tool that allows us to do so.

How does worship music affect the brain? ›

When we worship, gamma waves are created in our brain that can actually help us feel the presence of God.” Psalm 22:3 says that God inhabits the praises of his people and we actually get a physical boost as these gamma waves fire in our brains while we worship.

What is the power of worship through music? ›

Worshiping through music changes and transforms us. It inclines our hearts to God in ways other forms can't accomplish. Worship strengthens us, convicts us, builds us up, and even restores us. In other words, when we sing and devote our whole selves to God, something godly happens within us.

Why does gospel music make you emotional? ›

However, some possible reasons why someone might cry when listening to gospel music could be because the lyrics are particularly moving or personal, the music itself is beautiful and emotive, or because the act of listening to gospel music can be a form of religious or spiritual worship.

What does the Bible say about instrumental music in the church? ›

Hicks goes further, calling the matter an issue of salvation and insisting instruments are the man-made practices exhorted against in Colossians 2:22-23, he said. Humming, clapping and other wordless melodious noise-making are also forbidden, he said.

What happens when we listen to worship songs? ›

Improves Mental Health

Research done by The Gerontological Society of America says that listening to gospel music is associated with decreased levels of stress among older Christians. Those who listened to gospel music had higher self-esteem, felt more satisfied, and had a greater sense of self-control.

What does music do to God? ›

The church's ministry of song is for the glory of God.

96:1). Music is made first of all to the Lord and only secondarily to each other. Music should communicate and express a sense of awe and wonder in the presence of God; it should lead our thoughts toward God rather than toward ourselves.

How does music affect you spiritually? ›

Music Connects Spiritually

Throughout history, music has been used in spiritual ceremonies in the form of acapella singing, chants, drums, among others. Music has a transcendent property that can connect you to something greater than yourself and has been proven to positively affect spirituality and quality of life.

What are the psychological benefits of worship? ›

Prayer can foster a sense of connection, whether it's to a higher power, what a person finds important in life or their values, said Ryan Bremner, an associate professor of psychology at the University of St. Thomas in Minnesota. Prayer can reduce feelings of isolation, anxiety and fear as well.

Why is gospel music so powerful? ›

It was helping to reinforce spiritual practices and beliefs. It was also a powerful tool that helped them send coded messages, communicate with allies and even persuade those who weren't initially on the side of whatever cause they were fighting for.

Is worship music a form of prayer? ›

Unlike praise music which is mainly celebratory in nature, worship music brings together aspects of prayer and devotion through music.

What does the Bible say about singing praises to God? ›

Sing to the LORD a new song; sing to the LORD, all the earth. Sing to the LORD, praise his name; proclaim his salvation day after day. Declare his glory among the nations, his marvelous deeds among all peoples. For great is the LORD and most worthy of praise; he is to be feared above all gods.

Why is music such an emotional trigger? ›

The limbic system, which is involved in processing emotions and controlling memory, “lights” up when our ears perceive music. The chills you feel when you hear a particularly moving piece of music may be the result of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that triggers sensations of pleasure and well-being.

What does crying do spiritually? ›

It gives vent to grief, guilt, anger, fear, and frustration, as well as joy and happiness. Our broken heart and contrite spirit cry. Our tender mercies cry. Sometimes when the Spirit touches on the crusty, hardened parts of our heart and we soften up – we cry as a result.

What are the emotions of worship? ›

Worship expresses personal feelings, and often these are emotional states we bring to worship. In worship we express our joy, our tears, our feelings of exultation, humility, or shame. This may be more obvious in some liturgical traditions than others.

Where in the Bible does it say make music to God? ›

Psalms 98:5 In-Context

4 Shout for joy to the LORD, all the earth, burst into jubilant song with music; 5 make music to the LORD with the harp, with the harp and the sound of singing, 6 with trumpets and the blast of the ram's horn— shout for joy before the LORD, the King.

Where in the Bible does it say make music to the Lord? ›

Psalm 98:4-9 King James Version (KJV)

Make a joyful noise unto the LORD, all the earth: Make a loud noise, and rejoice, and sing praise. Sing unto the LORD with the harp; With the harp, and the voice of a psalm. With trumpets and sound of cornet Make a joyful noise before the LORD, the King.

What does God say about musical instruments? ›

Indeed, God commands the use of musical instruments in worship over and over again. Both grace and law join hands in beautifying worship with instrumentation. Scripture says, “Sing to the LORD with the harp, with the harp and the sound of a psalm, with trumpets and the sound of a horn” (Ps. 98:5-6).

Why do all worship songs sound the same? ›

“If you have ever felt like most worship music sounds the same,” the study's authors wrote, “it may be because the worship music you are most likely to hear in many churches is written by just a handful of songwriters from a handful of churches.”

Is listening to worship music spending time with God? ›

Listen to Worship Music

Worship is a way to show Jesus you care and thanking him for what he has done in your life through song. It doesn't have to be extravagant, it just has to be spent intentionally with him.

Does music glorify God? ›

1:7; Heb. 4:15–16). Music, like all of God's gifts, is meant to draw our hearts and attention to his glory, his power, and his love. We can use music to deepen our love for God in countless ways.

What music pleases God? ›

God loves psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs—so if there is grace in your heart, then sing TO Him, and ABOUT Him to encourage others.

Why is music a gift from God? ›

But God gives us music as a reflection of the goodness and beauty of His presence. The words of the songs, Psalms, and hymns we sing proclaim the story of salvation, and the music gives us an aural expression of the story while also appealing to our human emotions.

Can God communicate with us through music? ›

Believe it or not, God can speak to us while we are worshipping Him! Worshipping through song is not only a way for us to communicate to Him and be in awe of who He is, but it can also assist us in helping us realize what God is trying to say to us. It's an emotional and holy time that causes life change to occur.

How does music connect to the soul? ›

With music's deep connection to the limbic system, people tend to find connections in music through memories. Certain songs have a way of taking you to certain time or a specific place in your life. Because of this, we feel a reminiscent connection to music to go along with the emotions it already arouses in us.

Can music heal you spiritually? ›

But did you know that music can also serve as a powerful tool for healing? It's true – music therapy and other modalities of musical healing have become increasingly popular, offering individuals with physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual needs the opportunity to express themselves through sound.

Does music affect your mentality? ›

Active music-making positively affects neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, that influence mood. Dopamine influences focus, concentration, memory, sleep, mood and motivation. Likewise, serotonin impacts mood, sleep patterns, anxiety and pain.

What are three importance of worship? ›

It is of great social importance that worship brings to the group and its members a sense of the enduring qualities of life, hope for a doubtful future, and a sense of well-being and health in the midst of trials and illness and danger.

What are three reasons people worship? ›

7 Reasons Why We Worship
  • We worship God because of who He is. ...
  • We worship God because of what He has done for us. ...
  • We worship God because He commands us to. ...
  • We worship God to bless and honor Him. ...
  • We worship God because we love Him. ...
  • We worship God because of what He is doing on the earth.
Dec 16, 2016

What is the personality of worship? ›

Your Worship Personality is Intellectual. You feel closest to God when you're intellectually stimulated. Few things thrill you more than discovering something new about God or His ways as you dive deep into Scripture. Quite simply, your study of God is how you naturally love God.

What is black gospel music called? ›

African American Gospel music is a form of euphoric, rhythmic, spiritual music rooted in the solo and responsive church singing of the African American South. Its development coincided with -- and is germane to -- the development of rhythm and blues.

Why worship is more than a song? ›

Worship is much more than an emotional connection. We worship in spirit and truth – it's a both/and. As we listen, we should be ready to respond to the message we hear in the preaching (truth), and the message we have discerned in our prayers (spirit), and the message we have experienced in the song (spirit & truth).

Why are hymns so powerful? ›

Many hymns build unity among the Saints as well as build a community of Saints. They invite the Spirit into meetings and into our lives. They teach doctrine. Hymns often express testimony and may even be a form of protection or a source of comfort and healing.

What are the three forms of worship? ›

Forms of worship
  • Liturgical worship.
  • Non-liturgical worship.
  • Informal worship.
  • Private worship.

What are true worship songs? ›

Worship the Father in spirit and in truth!
  • All I Have is Christ (Bob Kauflin, 2008)
  • Great is Thy Faithfulness (Original by Chisholm & Runyan; Arrangement by Fernando Ortega, 2006) ...
  • Behold our God (Megan, Jonathan & Ryan Baird & Stephen Altrogge, 2011)
  • How Rich a Treasure We Possess (Matt Boswell, 2013)
Jan 19, 2015

What are the two types of worship songs? ›

Songs within this covenant-renewal worship serve one of two functions: (1) Often psalms and hymns serve as God's words to us, either directly quoting from or paraphrasing Scripture itself. (2) Psalms and hymns can also serve as our response to God's revelation.

What happens when we sing praises to God? ›

The Bible says God is “Enthroned upon the praises of Israel” (Psalm 22:3). Praise promotes productivity. According to the Word, the Earth yields its produce in the presence of praise (Psalm 17:5-6).

Did Jesus sing in the Bible? ›

First, Matthew 26:30 and Mark 14:26 are two parallel texts picturing Jesus “singing a song of praise.” Both passages are brief. We read that Jesus sang a hymn with the disciples at the conclusion of the Lord's Supper. It was just before he set out to pray on the Mount of Olives.

What is the true meaning of worship? ›

: to honor or show reverence for as a divine being or supernatural power. : to regard with great or extravagant respect, honor, or devotion. a celebrity worshipped by her fans. intransitive verb. : to perform or take part in worship or an act of worship.

How does music affect mental health negatively? ›

There are studies that show, however, that music can impact our mood long-term, increasing depression or anxiety. Certain songs, certain lyrics, certain genres of music are more likely to intensify depression or anxiety, sometimes as much or more as outside stressors and environmental factors.

What music does to your brain? ›

It provides a total brain workout. Research has shown that listening to music can reduce anxiety, blood pressure, and pain as well as improve sleep quality, mood, mental alertness, and memory.

Why does music spark emotions? ›

Rhythmic entrainment: "This refers to a process whereby an emotion is evoked by a piece of music because a powerful, external rhythm in the music influences some internal bodily rhythm of the listener (e.g. heart rate), such that the latter rhythm adjusts toward and eventually 'locks in' to a common periodicity.

What does God do when your crying? ›

“And He will wipe away every tear from their eyes; and there will no longer be any death; there will no longer be any mourning, or crying, or pain….” (Revelation 21:4). Ultimately, there will be a glorious day when you will feel the Hand of God gently caress your cheek, wiping away the tears you once cried.

What happens when God hears your cry? ›

We trust in God through heavy tears and blurred vision because He will rescue us. Our tears before God are never in vain. He hears our cries, and He will make all things new.

How does God feel when we cry? ›

Even before God became man, it's clear throughout the Old Testament that God feels sorrow, even weeps for the crushing blows of His people. Psalm 34:18 promises us that “the Lord is close to the brokenhearted.” How can you be close to someone who is brokenhearted and not feel their pain?

What does the Bible say about emotions and worship? ›

God demands all of us in worship. The greatest commandment to love God with all our heart, soul, mind and strength (Deuteronomy 6:4-9; Matthew 22:36-40) is a commandment about worship. Love is, in fact, the deepest form of worship. Emotions are a vital, good, God-given part of what it means to be truly human.

How does worship affect the brain? ›

Researchers have found that when we worship God, there is an increase in BPNF, which is a neurotransmitter that helps us grow healthy brain cells. Every morning, we wake up with 300 million more brain cells. When we worship, gamma waves are created in our brain that can actually help us feel the presence of God.

Does God speak through emotions? ›

God speaks through impressions in our emotions.

Keep in mind that the thoughts God has towards people are always thoughts of love, grace, protection, joy, conviction (not condemnation or shame), forgiveness, mercy, comfort, etc.

How and why do Christians use music in worship? ›

Admonishing – singing hymns and songs helps Christians to correct one another as they examine their lives against the words they sing. Praising – songs and hymns help Christians to worship God and thank Him for the good things He has done for them.

What scripture talks about worshiping God in song? ›

Bible Gateway Psalm 96 :: NIV. Sing to the LORD a new song; sing to the LORD, all the earth. Sing to the LORD, praise his name; proclaim his salvation day after day. Declare his glory among the nations, his marvelous deeds among all peoples.

What scripture says about music? ›

Music is intentional — designed by God to move both spirit and mind, as we see in 1 Corinthians 14:15, “What am I to do? I will pray with my spirit, but I will pray with my mind also; I will sing praise with my spirit, but I will sing with my mind also.”

Why is music a part of worship? ›

Music is something we both hear and sing when we worship. This is related to the fact that worship is both call and response. The call of God reaches the depths of our hearts with special power through music, and our singing expresses with special power the deepest response of our hearts to God.

What are the 3 roles of music? ›

Reasons for creating music include ceremonial purposes, recreational purposes, and artistic expression.

What are the 7 keys of worship? ›

Seven Words of Worship combines biblical truth, practical application, and inspiring real life stories to clarify the reader's understanding and living out of w orship, focusing the spiritual practice on seven key words: Creation; Grace; Love; Response; Expression; Presence; Experience.

How to glorify God through music? ›

We can use music to deepen our love for God in countless ways. The most obvious way is proclaiming God's truth together in corporate worship, pouring out our hearts to him in song, encountering his presence. Some people find it helpful to sing with or listen to a worship CD during their private devotions.

Is worship song a form of prayer? ›

Hymns and worship songs are based on prayer and Scripture. Try using just the lyrics for your prayer. Don't sing along. Instead, simply read the words, taking time to consider what they mean and how they can be your prayer.

Is music a blessing from God? ›

In Scripture, we see that music is used for glorifying and worshipping God, telling of his great deeds, offering outlets for both lament and praise, and providing unity to God's people.

What Psalm in the Bible talks about music? ›

Psalms 98:1-7

4 Shout for joy to the LORD, all the earth, burst into jubilant song with music; 5 make music to the LORD with the harp, with the harp and the sound of singing, 6 with trumpets and the blast of the ram's horn— shout for joy before the LORD, the King.

What do the psalms say about music? ›

Sing and make music in your heart to the Lord, . . (Eph. 5:19), and, Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly as you teach and counsel one another with all wisdom, and as you sing psalms, hymns and spiritual songs with gratitude in your hearts to God (Col. 3:16).

What is music for Worshipping God called? ›

liturgical music, also called church music, music written for performance in a religious rite of worship.

What does the Bible say about tattoos? ›

But in the ancient Middle East, the writers of the Hebrew Bible forbade tattooing. Per Leviticus 19:28, “You shall not make gashes in your flesh for the dead, or incise any marks on yourselves.”

What is the purpose of worship? ›

Worship is adoration. “Ascribe to the LORD the glory due his name; worship the LORD in the splendor of holiness (Psalm 29:2 NIV).” Adoring God means you're ascribing worthiness to God for who he is and for what he has done. The purpose of true worship is to serve and adore God.


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